RESEARCH IN SCIENCE (General and Specific competencies)

Fourth Year
General and Specific Competencies

I. Overview of Research
1. Appreciate the nature and characteristics of research.
1.1.1 Express effectively the meaning of scientific research
1.1.2 Express in writing why knowledge of scientific methodology can be of value to researchers.
1.1.3 Discuss the different types of experimental research methodologies used in science research.

2. Determine the ethical issues that needs to be addressed in conducting research in science
2.1 Discuss the ethical standards and ethical issues in conducting research.

II. Research Problem
1. Demonstrate ability to formulate a researchable problem
1.1 Formulate the research problem
1.1.1 State the main problem and sub -problems of the research
1.1.2 State the significance of the research problem Cite information and express the
significance of a research problem
1.1.3 State the scope and limitations of the research problem

III. Hypothesis
1. Demonstrate competence in formulating a hypothesis.
1.1 Distinguish the types of hypothesis
1.2 Describe directional and non-directional hypothesis
1.2.1 Distinguish between directional and non-directional hypothesis
1.2.2 Give an example of each
1.3 Formulate a hypothesis in 3 ways
1.3.1 null hypothesis
1.3.2 alternative hypothesis
1.3.3 cause and effect statement
2. Demonstrate the ability to identify the variables involve in research investigations
2.1 Describe the term "variable that can be investigated by researchers
2.1.1 Express thought orally explaining what is meant by the term "variable"
2.1.2 Distinguish the types of variables that might be investigated by researches in science.
2.1.3 Explain how variable differs from a constant.
2.1.4 Distinguish between a quantitative and a categorical variable.
2.1.5 Explain how independent and dependent variable are related.

IV. Review of Related Literature and Studies
1. Write the review of related literature and studies section of research report.
1.1 Distinguish between related literature and related studies.
1.2 Apply the guidelines in preparing the review of related literature and studies.
1.3 Define the terms/variables of the research
1.3.1 Express in correct words variables of the research.

V. Research Design
1. Plan the research design
1.1 Apply the guidelines on how to make a research design.
1.1.1 Discuss the guidelines that are extensively applied in making a research design
1.2 Identify the experimental and control groups
1.3 Design the necessary experimental and control set-ups1.4 Apply the principle of sampling technique and strategy in the selection of samples.

2. Write the materials and methods in conducting an experiment.
2.1 Apply the guidelines in scientific writing in preparing the materials and methods section of research report.

VI. Data collection an Analysis
1. Determine appropriate tools/instruments for gathering data.1.1 Explain what is meant by instrumental techniques
1.2 Identify appropriate instrumental techniques in data collection.
1.3 Name three ways in which data can be collected by researchers.
1.4 Use information maps and other concept maps as aid in documentation

2. Develop ability to gather and record quantifiable data.
2.1 Establish patterns or trends in the data collected.
2.1.1 Classify data into quantitative and qualitative
2.1.2 Identify the types of measurement scales. Name four types of measurement scales. Give an example of each.
2.2 Present data in graphic (photomicrographs and photographs) and non-linear.
2.2.1 Determine the appropriate mode of presenting data.
2.2.2 Make a write up to charts and graphs.

3. Analyze and interpret the data collected
3.1 Use appropriate measures ( central tendency and variation) in describing the data.
3.1.1 Apply appropriate measures in describing collected data.
3.1.2 Explain in writing the data presented in non-linear texts.
3.2 Identify appropriate tests for significance of hypothesis.
3.2.1 Apply appropriate tests for significance of hypothesis
3.2.2 Apply the guidelines/steps in the testing for significance of hypothesis.
3.2.3 Analyze and interpret the results.

VII. Conclusion and Recommendation
1. Draw conclusions and formulate recommendations.
1.1 Write valid conclusions.
1.2 Make relevant recommendations.

VIII. Writing a Research Report
1. Demonstrate competence in writing science research report.
1.1 Write the science repot following the standard format for the various parts of a research paper; e.g. title page, table of contents, abstract, appendices, texts, graphs, tables and charts documentations and references cited, approval sheet, list of tables and figures, etc.

IX. Oral Defense/ Science Congress
1. Demonstrate ability for a science congress.
1.1 Follow the mechanics of a science congress.
1.2 Use appropriate format for exhibit display.


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