English for Science and Technology and Basic Statistics

(English for Science and Technology and Basic Statistics)
Course Description

Research 1 equips First Year students of science and technology-oriented high schools with research skills that will enable them to prepare research reports, investigatory projects, and a research proposal utilizing information obtained from library and on-line resources.

As their first formal instruction in research, this course aims, on the one hand, to develop basic statistics skills needed in research, e.g. problem identification, knowledge of the types and uses of data, data collection, and analysis. It likewise develops scientific and technical writing skills required in writing and documenting research proposals and investigatory projects, among others.

As such, in this course, Basic Statistics is taken together with scientific technical writing. While Basic Statistics enables the students to gather, analyze, and organize data, Technical Writing provides the basic concepts and skills in presenting information in descriptive and textual form. The former underscores substance while the latter makes the learners aware of the underlying structure of scientific discourse and the way in which sentences are combined to communicate meaning.

The course outputs include a research proposal and research reports.

Course Objectives:

After undergoing the activities in Research I, the learner should be able to:
1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of variables, sampling techniques, data collection, and the organization and presentation of data
2. Demonstrate skills in interpreting statistical results correctly
3. Demonstrate the ability to apply concepts in statistics to the project undertaken
4. Develop the ability to design a research proposal e.g., select and limit a research topic, take notes, prepare an outline, write and document research proposals/investigatory projects
5. Demonstrate the ability to write EST or scientific and technical papers such as research proposals, scientific articles, and investigatory projects
6. Demonstrate oral skills in proposal defense

Program Goals:
(English for Science and Technology)
1. Exhibit the ability to make sense of EST text types
2. Determine the objectives of scientific discourse
3. Demonstrate the ability to choose the appropriate rhetorical mode, macrodiscourse pattern and non-linear visual aids for conveying scientific and technical information

4. Demonstrate the ability to choose the appropriate rhetorical technique and signals
suited to the different EST text types

5. Demonstrate the ability to choose the appropriate macrodiscourse pattern suited to
the overall objective of the EST text

6. Demonstrate the ability to write scientific and technical papers

(Basic Statistics)

7. Gain an overview of what statistics is all about
8. State the importance and uses of the different variables
9. Gain necessary mathematical tools needed for statistical computation
10. Be able to generate a good sample from a given population
11. Demonstrate the ability to generate reliable data from a given sample
12. Select the best form to be used in preparing and presenting collected data
13. State the significance of the Measure of Central Tendency and know which measure to best use given a particular situation
14. Use MS EXCEL in presentation and analysis
15. Characterize the variation with a given set of data
16. Demonstrate the ability to use, identify and understand measures of non central tendency
17. Finalize the research proposal began in first semester
18. Demonstrate ability to compute the probability of an event

(English for Science and Technology and Basic Statistics)
Content Outline

First Quarter:

1. Research

Process (with emphasis on problem identification)
Areas covered

2. Objectives of scientific discourse

Scientific texts
Detailing experiments
Making recommendations
Presenting new hypothesis
Presenting other types of EST information

3. Types of paragraphs

3.1. Physical vs conceptual
3.2. Explicit vs implicit
3.3. Deductive, inductive, hybrid

4. Library and on-line research

4.1. Types of entries:

4.1.1. Bibliography
· books
· periodicals
· unpublished
· materials retrieved from the Internet

4.1.2 Footnoting
§ explanatory
§ source
§ internal

5. Summarizing Abstract Writing

5.1. Descriptive abstract
5.2. Information abstract
5.3. Combination of descriptive and informational

6. Note-taking

6.1. Types of notes

6.1.1 direct quotes
6.1.2 summary/précis
6.1.3 outline
6.1.4 critical
6.1.5 cross-references

7. Output 1: Annotated Bibliography

8. The working outline

8.1.1 thesis statement
8.1.2 kinds of outline
8.1.3 format of outlines

9. Output 2: Outline of the Research Proposal

10. Macro discourse patterns of scientific discourse

10.1 Writing general-to-specific texts
10.2 Problem-Situation (P-Sn)
10.3 Topic-Restriction-Illustration (TRI)

11. Specific rhetorical function 1 “Definition

11.1 Types of sentence definitions
11.1.1 formal
11.1.2 semi-formal
11.1.3 non-formal
11.1.4 special types

11.2 Types of expanded definitions
11.2.1 extended
11.2.2 contrastive
11.2.3 comparative

12 Specific rhetorical functions 2 “Description”

12.1 Types of Description

12.1.1 physical
12.1.2 function
12.1.3 process

13. Rhetorical techniques needed in descriptions

13.1 Natural order

13.1.1 time
13.1.2 space
13.1.3 causality and result

14. Specific rhetorical function 3 “Classification”

14.1 Types

14.1.1 complete
14.1.2 partial
14.1.3 implicit

15. Rhetorical techniques needed in classification

15.1 Logical patterns

15.1.1 order of importance
15.1.2 exemplification
15.1.3 illustration

16. Specific rhetorical function 4 “instructions”

16.1 Types

16.1.1 direct (commands)
16.1.2 indirect (passives, modals)

16.2 Instructional information
16.2.1 cautions
16.2.2. warnings
16.2.3 specifying statements
16.2.4 theory (why)

17. Specific rhetorical function 5 “Visual-verbal relationship”

17.1 Write-ups of visuals
17.1.1 flow charts (linear, branching, cyclical)
17.1.2 tree diagrams
17.1.3 grids
17.1.4 graphs (line, bar, pie)
17.1.5 other concept maps

18. Rhetorical techniques that may be used to indicate visual and verbal

18.1 Logical patters

18.1.1 comparison and contrast
18.1.2 analogy
18.1.3 identifying a general topic
18.1.4 limiting and defining the topic
18.1.5 stating the topic as a question or hypothesis

Second Quarter

19. Overview of the research proposal

19.1 Sections and parts of a research proposal
19.2 General functions of the sections

19.2.1 stating the purpose
19.2.2 reporting related studies
19.2.3 presenting information on papers apparatus to be used
19.2.4 presenting information on proposed experimental procedures

20. Introduction to research proposals

20.1 Models of introduction to scientific papers

20.1.1 Create a Research Space (CARS) model
20.1.2 Problem-Solution (PSn)

Discoursal features of the different sections of the introduction

21. Review of related studies

21.1 Reporting past studies and comparing them with the present study
21.2 Weak and strong author orientation

22. Framework of the study

22.1 Theoretical framework
22.2 Conceptual framework

23. Output: First two Sections of the proposal

23.1 Presentation and critiquing of initial draft of the introduction and review of
related literature

24. Research designs

24.1 Quantitative

24.1.1 Survey
24.1.2 Experimental
24.1.3 Qualitative
24.1.4 Anthropological
24.1.5 Case studies

25. Methodology

24.2 Subjects
24.3 Sampling
24.4 Instruments
24.5 Treatment of data

26. Sample research instruments

26.1 Data gathering: checklist, questionnaire, etc.

27. Third section of the proposal

27.1 Presentation and critiquing of initial draft of methodology

28. Revised Tentative Proposal (first 2 sections)

28.1Oral defense

Basic Statistics

Third Quarter

1. Introduction to Statistics


2. Variables and Data


3. Summation Notation

Summation of a constant
Summation of a Sum
Summation of a variable and a constant
Sum of the squares of variables
Square of the sum of variables
Sum of a product
Sum of the product, of a constant and a variable

4. Samples and Population

Sampling Techniques
4.2.1 Simple Random
4.2.2 Stratified
4.2.3 Systematic
4.2.4 Other Methods
4.2.5 Sample Size

5. Collection of Data


6. Organization and Presentation of Data

Frequency Distribution
Frequency Distribution Table
Cumulative Frequency Distribution
Relative Frequency Distribution
o Line Graph
o Bar Graph
o Pictograph
o Pie Chart
6.7 Ogive
6.8 Histogram

7. Measures of Central Tendency

7.1. Ungrouped data
7.2. Grouped data

8. Computer application

8.1. Use of MS EXCEL in Statistics

9. Measures of Relative Position

9.1. Quantile
9.2. Decile
9.3. Percentile

10. Measures of Vanability

10.1 Range
10.2 Mean Deviation
10.3 Variance and Standard Deviation

11. Probability

11.1 Concepts and Definitions
11.1.1 Random Experiment
11.1.2 Sample space
11.1.3 Sample outcome
11.1.4 Events

11.2 Operations of Events
11.2.1 Union
11.2.2 Intersection
11.2.3 Complementation
11.2.4 Mutually exclusive events

11.3 Probability of an event
(finile Sample space only)

11.4 Properties of Probability

12. Report Writing

13. Presentation of Proposal

(English for Science & Technology)

After going through the activities, in the Research 1 course, the learner shall have developed the following competencies:

1. Demonstrate the ability to differentiate among various forms of EST discourse (scientific and technical writing)

Identify EST texts, i.e. English texts that present facts, hypotheses, and other instances of scientific and technical information

Contrast the text structure of different scientific texts e.g. research proposals, scientific articles, reports, abstracts, etc.

2. Show the ability to determine the objectives of scientific texts

2.1. Determine the overall objective of a scientific text: detailing an experiment, making a recommendation, presenting new hypothesis or theory, and presenting other types of EST information.

3. Exhibit the ability to identify EST rhetorical functions of discourse

3.1. Identity and explain EST, rhetorical modes of functions of discourse, description, definition, classification, instructions, and visual-verbal relationships

4. Show awareness of the different rhetorical modes and micro-discourse signals to establish logical sequences and clause relations

4.1. Distinguish the various techniques employed in EST paragraph development, time order, space order, order of importance, cause and result comparison and contrast, analogy, exemplification and illustration

4.2. Identify and use markers/transition signals suited to the rhetorical patters in EST discourse: e.g., first, second, thus, hence, in contrast, as figure 1 shows, etc.

4.3. Plan and write original EST paragraphs using the technique and signals suited to various EST text types

5. Demonstrate the ability to differentiate among the macro-discourse patterns of EST discourse

5.1. Identify the full form and variants of the macro-discourse patterns of EST discourse
5.1.1. Problem-Solution (PSn)
Situation " Problem "
Attempted solution "
Result "Evaluation
5.1.2. Topic-Restriction-Illustration (TRI)
5.2. Describe the combination of the two macro discourse patterns
5.3. Use the macro-discourse pattern suited to the overall objective of the text
5.4. Use the general-to-specific discourse pattern in texts

6. Demonstrate competence in writing a research proposal

6.1. Gather materials to use in a research proposal

6.1.1. Select an under-researched topic Identify the general Limit and define the topic State the topic as a question

6.1.2. Prepare a working bibliography Consult general and specialized indexes,
bibliographies, and the card catalog Prepare bibliography cards according to a standard

6.1.3 Gather information for inclusion in scientific papers Distinguish between primary and secondary sources Evaluate the qualifications of authors or sources of

6.1.4. Take down notes: direct quotation, summary or précis, outline, and critical Follow the conventions and standard format of note taking

6.1.5 Prepare a working outline Write the thesis statement or controlling idea of the research paper the paper

6.1.6. Write a research proposal Write the introduction following the Problem- Solution (PSn) and Create a Research Space model (CARS) Enumerate the questions that the proposal research seeks to answer Write the review of related studies Indicate the theories underlying one’s proposal Describe the conceptual framework of the proposal research

(Basic Statistics)

1. Manifest ability to show appreciation in the use of statistics in research and in everyday life.

Trace the history of statistics
Explain the definition of statistics
Identify the uses of statistics
Explain the difference between a statistic and a parameter
Differentiate between categorical and quantitative data
Recognize application where statistics may be used
Identify a study problem
State questions or hypothesis of the study

2. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding variables in Statistics

2.1 Differentiate a variable from a set of data
2.2 Classify the different types of variables
2.3 Differentiate types of variables through examples
2.4 Identity independent and dependent variables
2.5 Enumerate the variables in the study identified

3. Demonstrate skills in computation involving summation notation

3.1 Interpret the meaning of common statistical summations
3.2 Compute the summation of given variable
3.3 Apply the properties of summation

4. Demonstrate understanding of sampling procedures and techniques

Explain the idea of a sample being a representative of the population
Define, describe and give the importance of sampling technique
Enumerate kinds of sampling techniques
Differentiate random sampling from systematic sampling
Discuss the different kinds of random sampling
Analyze the situation where random sampling and other sampling technique
is applicable
Perform exercises involving sampling techniques
Apply the sampling techniques learned in the identified study

5. Manifest ability to apply the different methods of collecting data and its necessary instruments.

Discuss the importance of collecting data
Describe the different kinds of data
Discuss the different methods of collecting data
Describe the differentiate types of questions
Develop a simple research instrument for the study

6. Demonstrate skills in organizing and presenting collected data in table and graphical form.

Recognize the importance of organizing data
Organize data in a frequency distribution table
Construct a frequency distribution table applying appropriate steps
Transform frequency distribution table into graph
6.4.1 Histogram
6.4.2 Ogive
6.4.3 Frequency Polygon

Identify which graph is best to use for a given set of data
Analyze the frequency distribution table and of the graph
Make conclusions on the basis of the analysis of frequency distribution table
or the graph
Construct a crossbreak table of the data in the study

7. Manifest ability to compute and interpret the three measures of central tendency in both grouped and ungrouped data

Differentiate the three measure of central tendency: mean, median, mode
Compute the mean, median and mode of ungrouped and grouped data
Compare the mean, median and mode of ungrouped and grouped data
7.4 Determine which measure is most appropriate to use for the study
7.5 Interpret the mean, median and mode of grouped and ungrouped data

8. Demonstrate skill in computer knowledge as a tool for previously knowledge as a tool for previously learned data organization and computing techniques.

Use MS EXCEL in arranging/organizing data
Use MS EXCEL in compulation of centralities
Graph the data using MS EXCEL

9. Manifest ability to compute and interpret the three measures of variability.

Differentiate the three measures of variability, rage, mean deviation and
standard deviation
Calculate the range, mean deviation and standard deviation of a frequency
distribution of data
Show examples where different measures of variability is observe
Recognize the significance of range, mean deviation and standard
Interpret the range, mean deviation and standard deviation of ungrouped data
Explain how any particular score in a in a normal distribution can be
interpreted in standard deviation units
Explain how to interpret a normal distribution
Construct and interpret a scatterplot

10. Manifest ability to use quartiles and percentiles in interpreting data

10.1 Illustrate quartiles and percentiles
10.2 Compute for quartiles and ungrouped and grouped data
10.3 Interpret the computed values of quartiles
10.4 Locate the percentile points
10.5 Compute the percentile rank of a score in a distribution
10.6 Apply knowledge of quartiles and percentiles to problem situation
10.7 Explain a five-number summary

11. Demonstrate skill in using the computer as a tool for computing Measures of
variability and Relative Position of data

11.1Use MS EXCEL proficiently in working with problems involving
measures of relative position and measures of variability
11.2 Use statistical package software in analyzing and interpreting data

12. Manifest ability to apply all the previously learned concepts in producing a mini-
research project

State the problem of the study
Select variables and collect data
Summarize the results for each variable
Construct a table
Interpret a given table interpret
Describe the relationship between variables
Write a report
State the purpose of the project
Define the population
State how sample was selected
Show the raw data
Construct the frequency distribution of the data
Draw or construct the graph
Analyze the results
Make conclusion and recommendation

13. Demonstrate ability to compute the probability of an event using the properties of probability and operations of events.

13.1. Explain the concepts related to probability
13.1.1 Random experiment
13.1.2 Sample space and sample outcomes
13.1.3 Events
13.2 Perform operations on events, union, intersection, and complementation
13.3 Define mutually exclusive events
13.4 Compute the probability of an event for finite sample spaces
13.5 Apply the properties of probability


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